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On Sophistical Refutations   

has the power to do it.' Some people solve this last refutation in

another way as well. For, they say, if he has granted that he can do

anything in the way he can, still it does not follow that he can

harp when not harping: for it has not been granted that he will do

anything in every way in which he can; and it is not the same thing'

to do a thing in the way he can' and 'to do it in every way in which

he can'. But evidently they do not solve it properly: for of arguments

that depend upon the same point the solution is the same, whereas this

will not fit all cases of the kind nor yet all ways of putting the

questions: it is valid against the questioner, but not against his



Accentuation gives rise to no fallacious arguments, either as

written or as spoken, except perhaps some few that might be made up;

e.g. the following argument. 'Is ou katalueis a house?' 'Yes.' 'Is

then ou katalueis the negation of katalueis?' 'Yes.' 'But you

said that ou katalueis is a house: therefore the house is a

negation.' How one should solve this, is clear: for the word does

not mean the same when spoken with an acuter and when spoken with a

graver accent.


It is clear also how one must meet those fallacies that depend on

the identical expressions of things that are not identical, seeing

that we are in possession of the kinds of predications. For the one

man, say, has granted, when asked, that a term denoting a substance

does not belong as an attribute, while the other has shown that some

attribute belongs which is in the Category of Relation or of Quantity,

but is usually thought to denote a substance because of its

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